Network based systems

1G to 6G: tracing the evolution of the mobile network and where to go from now



Telecom operators are expected to roll out 5G services in India, possibly as early as October. Now, 5G promises a high-speed experience and low-latency mobile internet services on the go.

As we move towards this next generation of mobile network, let’s take a look at the experiences each generation has brought with it and what the future – 6G – might hold.


1G: Voice calls

It was a time when phones were thick, heavy and bulky. They had no screens and were equipped with large antennas and massive batteries. Network reception was sketchy and battery time was abysmal. Nevertheless, this is where the story of the mobile network began.

The first generation allowed communication between two supported devices using a wireless network. Based on the analog system, 1G only supported voice calls, and those also of poor quality due to interference. Also, 1G operated in a fixed geographic area due to the network’s lack of roaming support.




2G: Telephony services

The second generation fixed issues that plagued the first generation mobile network and introduced new features. The first generation analog system has been replaced by a highly advanced digital technology for wireless transmission called Global System for Mobile communication (GSM). With a digital underpinning, 2G supported voice calls and higher quality data services such as short message service (SMS) and multimedia messaging service (MMS).

Also, this mobile network has enabled roaming, allowing users to attend calls, send and receive texts and media content on the go. The 2G network enabled real telephony services. It later received Internet support in the form of GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) and EDGE (Enhanced Data GSM Evolution), but that alone was not enough for a generational change. Therefore, there was also 2.5G before the world switched to 3G.


3G: the era of applications

The third generation mobile network introduced high-speed Internet services, which paved the way for smartphones and application ecosystems. While 3G enabled the concept of mobile television, online radio services and e-mail on phones, it is video calls and mobile phone applications that really define the 3G era.

It was the time when iPhones and Android smartphones were starting to make inroads. The first iteration of 3G supported internet speed in kilobytes per second (Kbps).

As with 2G, there was no direct switch from 3G to 4G. There was a 3.5G, which was intended for better Internet speeds in megabytes per second (Mbps) with the introduction of technologies such as HSDPA (High Speed ​​​​Downlink Packet Access) and HSUPA (High Speed ​​Uplink packet access).




4G: Internet calls

3G laid the foundation for 4G, which is the generation of mobile network we are on today. Concepts introduced by 3G such as high definition voice calls, video calls and other Internet services become a reality in 4G – thanks to higher data rate and advanced multimedia services supported by the network mobile. He developed the LTE (Long Term Evolution) system, which greatly improves data throughput and enables simultaneous transmission of voice and data. Internet telephony, or VoLTE (Voice over LTE), is one of the many advantages of the 4G mobile network. The network also enables Voice over Wi-Fi (VoWi-Fi), which enables voice calls in areas where network reception is weak or non-existent.


5G: IoT and business

From 1G to 4G, each successive generation of communications technology has brought significant changes to the network, perfecting previous generation use cases and introducing new ones. 5G, however, is expected to be a bit different, in that it won’t just be another mobile network for smartphone users but for businesses as well.

Indeed, the next generation network would bring not only an improvement in data speed, but also in latency and throughput. The low latency and high throughput make the network ideal for enterprise use, especially when it comes to automation and the connected ecosystem.

On the consumer side, the network would deliver high internet speeds and would likely play a crucial role in enabling technologies such as the metaverse.




6G: Connected ecosystem

6G is expected to drive adoption of large-scale 5G use cases through optimizations and cost reduction, especially at the enterprise level.

Take the concept of the metaverse, for example. This is one of the use cases for 5G, which promises to disrupt both traditional and digital spaces. With 6G, the metaverse would not only evolve into a final model, but is also likely to unify with the physical world using artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Indeed, the most notable aspect of 6G would be its ability to sense the environment, people and objects, according to telecommunications equipment maker Nokia Bell Labs.

India is eyeing late 2023 or early 2024 to launch 6G services using locally developed infrastructure.


Source link